direct-revision feed
edited:
Diff View
Original wikitext
Changed wikitext
Line 3: Line 3:
 
{{addiction glossary}}
 
{{addiction glossary}}
   
'''Psychological dependence''' is a state that involves emotional–motivational withdrawal symptoms, e.g. [[anxiety]] and [[anhedonia]], upon cessation of drug use or certain behaviours. It develops through frequent exposure to a psychoactive substance or behaviour, though behavioural dependence is less talked about. The specific mechanism involves a neuronal counter-adaption, which could be mediated through changes in neurotransmittor activity or altered receptor expression.<ref name=":5">{{Cite journal|last=Koob|first=George F.|last2=Le Moal|first2=Michel|date=2008|title=Addiction and the brain antireward system|journal=[[Annual Review of Psychology]]|volume=59|pages=29–53|doi=10.1146/annurev.psych.59.103006.093548|issn=0066-4308|pmid=18154498}}</ref><ref name=":0">{{Cite journal|last=Diana|first=M|last2=Pistis|first2=M|last3=Carboni|first3=S|last4=Gessa|first4=G L|last5=Rossetti|first5=Z L|date=1993-09-01|title=Profound decrement of mesolimbic dopaminergic neuronal activity during ethanol withdrawal syndrome in rats: electrophysiological and biochemical evidence.|journal=Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America|volume=90|issue=17|pages=7966–7969|issn=0027-8424|pmid=8367449|pmc=47268|doi=10.1073/pnas.90.17.7966}}</ref><ref name=":4" /><ref name=":6" /><ref name=":7">{{Cite journal|last=Yoneda|first=Yukio|date=2005|title=Functional Proteins Involved in Regulation of Intracellular Ca2+ for Drug Development: Preface|journal=Journal of Pharmacological Sciences|volume=97|issue=3|pages=337–338|doi=10.1254/jphs.fmj04007x1|issn=1347-8613|doi-access=free}}</ref> Withdrawal symptoms can be attenuated by [[environmental enrichment]] and physical activity.<ref name=":2" /><ref name=":3" /> Psychological dependence is not to be confused with [[physical dependence]], which induces physical withdrawal symptoms upon discontinuation of use. However they are not mutually exclusive.<ref name=":2" /><ref name=":1">{{Cite web|url=https://americanaddictioncenters.org/the-addiction-cycle/psychological-dependence/|title=What is pshychological dependence?|date=2018-10-29}}</ref>
+
'''Psychological dependence''' is a state that involves emotional–motivational withdrawal symptoms, e.g. [[anxiety]] and [[anhedonia]], upon cessation of drug use or certain behaviours. It develops through frequent exposure to a psychoactive substance or behaviour, though behavioural dependence is less talked about. The specific mechanism involves a neuronal counter-adaption, which could be mediated through changes in neurotransmittor activity or altered receptor expression.<ref name=":5">{{Cite journal|last=Koob|first=George F.|last2=Le Moal|first2=Michel|date=2008|title=Addiction and the brain antireward system|journal=[[Annual Review of Psychology]]|volume=59|pages=29–53|doi=10.1146/annurev.psych.59.103006.093548|issn=0066-4308|pmid=18154498}}</ref><ref name=":0">{{Cite journal|last=Diana|first=M|last2=Pistis|first2=M|last3=Carboni|first3=S|last4=Gessa|first4=G L|last5=Rossetti|first5=Z L|date=1993-09-01|title=Profound decrement of mesolimbic dopaminergic neuronal activity during ethanol withdrawal syndrome in rats: electrophysiological and biochemical evidence.|journal=Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America|volume=90|issue=17|pages=7966–7969|issn=0027-8424|pmid=8367449|pmc=47268|doi=10.1073/pnas.90.17.7966}}</ref><ref name=":4" /><ref name=":6" /><ref name=":7">{{Cite journal|last=Yoneda|first=Yukio|date=2005|title=Functional Proteins Involved in Regulation of Intracellular Ca2+ for Drug Development: Preface|journal=Journal of Pharmacological Sciences|volume=97|issue=3|pages=337–338|doi=10.1254/jphs.fmj04007x1|issn=1347-8613|doi-access=free}}</ref> Withdrawal symptoms can be attenuated by [[environmental enrichment]] and physical activity.<ref name=":2" /><ref name=":3" /> Psychological dependence is not to be confused with [[physical dependence]] as there is no hard evidence proving a difference between the two. This has led to controversy over whether a distinction even needs to be made.
   
 
== Symptoms ==
 
== Symptoms ==
Line 39: Line 39:
 
{| class="wikitable" style="float: right; border: 1px solid #BBB; margin: .46em 0 0 .2em;" {|
 
{| class="wikitable" style="float: right; border: 1px solid #BBB; margin: .46em 0 0 .2em;" {|
 
|+
 
|+
<small>Table 1: '''List of different drugs and which type of dependence they induce'''<ref name=":1" /></small>
+
<small>Table 1: '''List of different drugs and which type of dependence they induce'''<ref name=":1">{{Cite web|date=2018-10-29|title=What is pshychological dependence?|url=https://americanaddictioncenters.org/the-addiction-cycle/psychological-dependence/}}</ref></small>
 
!Physical dependence
 
!Physical dependence
 
!Psychological dependence
 
!Psychological dependence
Edit summary
Removed weak cited "evidence" for claims. Modernized minimally.
Human editors:
Artificial Intelligence: