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[[File:Bush-Howard 2001 review.jpg|thumb|Howard and George W. Bush on 10 September 2001. Howard was in Washington, D.C. during the [[11 September 2001 attacks|11 September terrorist attacks]], the response to which occupied much of his third term in office]]
[[File:Bush-Howard 2001 review.jpg|thumb|Howard and George W. Bush on 10 September 2001. Howard was in Washington, D.C. during the [[11 September 2001 attacks|11 September terrorist attacks]], the response to which occupied much of his third term in office]]


In the 1990s, a wealthy Saudi dissident, [[Osama Bin Laden]], leader of [[Al Qaeda]] (an internationalist Islamist paramilitary headquartered in Afghanistan) declared a [[fatwa]] calling for the killing of "Americans and their allies – civilians and military... in any country in which it is possible to do it" to bring to an end the ongoing enforcement of the [[Iraq sanctions|blockade against Iraq]] and presence of US troops in the Arabian Peninsula. The declaration followed earlier bombings and declarations of Jihad, which had brought Australians into the line of fire in what would latterly grow to be called the "[[War on Terror]]".<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.pbs.org/newshour/terrorism/international/fatwa_1998.html |title=Al Qaeda's 1998 Fatwa &#124; PBS NewsHour &#124; Feb. 23, 1998 |publisher=PBS |access-date=9 November 2011}}</ref> In September 2001, John Howard went to Washington to meet the new president of the United States, [[George W. Bush]] and to commemorate the anniversary of the [[ANZUS]] alliance.<ref>http://www.abc.net.au/reslib/201109/r826557_7555516.pdf {{Bare URL inline|date=November 2021}}</ref> During Howard's visit, [[September 11 attacks|on 11 September 2001]], four passenger planes were hijacked by [[Al Qaeda]] and used as missiles to attack civilian and military targets in New York ([[World Trade Center (1973–2001)|World Trade Center]]) and suburban Washington, D.C. ([[the Pentagon]]). The attacks surpassed [[Attack on Pearl Harbor|the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor]] as the most deadly attack against United States territory of modern times. In response, the Howard Government invoked the [[ANZUS Treaty]] and offered support to the United States. The Howard Government subsequently committed troops to the [[War in Afghanistan (2001–present)|Afghanistan War]] (with bi-partisan support) and the [[Iraq War]] (meeting with the disapproval of other political parties). The international Al Qaeda threat became a major backdrop to the [[2001 Australian federal election]] and became among the most significant foreign policy challenges of the Howard Government's terms of office. By the time of Bin Laden's death a decade later at the hands of US Special Forces, 105 Australians had been killed in Al Qaeda attacks in New York, Bali, London and Mumbai and a further 24 Australian military personnel had been killed while serving in the Afghanistan conflict (including one with the British Armed Forces).<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.abc.net.au/news/events/afghanistan/casualties.htm |title=Afghanistan (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) |publisher=Abc.net.au |access-date=9 November 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2011/05/02/3205635.htm |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110503190033/http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2011/05/02/3205635.htm |archive-date=3 May 2011 |title=War against terrorism not over: Gillard|date=2011-05-02 }}</ref>
In the 1990s, a wealthy Saudi dissident, [[Osama Bin Laden]], leader of [[Al Qaeda]] (an internationalist Islamist paramilitary headquartered in Afghanistan) declared a [[fatwa]] calling for the killing of "Americans and their allies – civilians and military... in any country in which it is possible to do it" to bring to an end the ongoing enforcement of the [[Iraq sanctions|blockade against Iraq]] and presence of US troops in the Arabian Peninsula. The declaration followed earlier bombings and declarations of Jihad, which had brought Australians into the line of fire in what would latterly grow to be called the "[[War on Terror]]".<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.pbs.org/newshour/terrorism/international/fatwa_1998.html |title=Al Qaeda's 1998 Fatwa &#124; PBS NewsHour &#124; Feb. 23, 1998 |publisher=PBS |access-date=9 November 2011}}</ref> In September 2001, John Howard went to Washington to meet the new president of the United States, [[George W. Bush]] and to commemorate the anniversary of the [[ANZUS]] alliance.<ref>{{cite web |url=https://www.abc.net.au/reslib/201109/r826557_7555516.pdf |accessdate=15 January 2022 |title=ABC Conversations with Richard Fidler - John Howard Interview Transcript |website=abc.net.au }}</ref> During Howard's visit, [[September 11 attacks|on 11 September 2001]], four passenger planes were hijacked by [[Al Qaeda]] and used as missiles to attack civilian and military targets in New York ([[World Trade Center (1973–2001)|World Trade Center]]) and suburban Washington, D.C. ([[the Pentagon]]). The attacks surpassed [[Attack on Pearl Harbor|the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor]] as the most deadly attack against United States territory of modern times. In response, the Howard Government invoked the [[ANZUS Treaty]] and offered support to the United States. The Howard Government subsequently committed troops to the [[War in Afghanistan (2001–present)|Afghanistan War]] (with bi-partisan support) and the [[Iraq War]] (meeting with the disapproval of other political parties). The international Al Qaeda threat became a major backdrop to the [[2001 Australian federal election]] and became among the most significant foreign policy challenges of the Howard Government's terms of office. By the time of Bin Laden's death a decade later at the hands of US Special Forces, 105 Australians had been killed in Al Qaeda attacks in New York, Bali, London and Mumbai and a further 24 Australian military personnel had been killed while serving in the Afghanistan conflict (including one with the British Armed Forces).<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.abc.net.au/news/events/afghanistan/casualties.htm |title=Afghanistan (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) |publisher=Abc.net.au |access-date=9 November 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2011/05/02/3205635.htm |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110503190033/http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2011/05/02/3205635.htm |archive-date=3 May 2011 |title=War against terrorism not over: Gillard|date=2011-05-02 }}</ref>


In Australian magazine ''[[The Bulletin (Australian periodical)|The Bulletin]]'', it was suggested that the Prime Minister viewed Australia as a "deputy peacekeeping capacity to the global policing role of the US" in the Asia-Pacific region, and that he had embraced the term "Howard Doctrine". Both notions were criticised by foreign leaders, diplomats, and academics in Australia and the region. Howard rejected these notions later that week.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.abc.net.au/7.30/stories/s55116.htm |title=Australia as regional police doctrine puts Howard in damage control |access-date=31 July 2008 |publisher=[[ABC News (Australia)|ABC News]] }}; [https://www.theguardian.com/world/2004/sep/10/indonesia.australia The Guardian]</ref> In 2003, US President, George W Bush, described Howard as the US' "deputy sheriff" in the region, comments which Howard played down.<ref>[http://www.abc.net.au/pm/content/2003/s969604.htm PM program, ABC]</ref>
In Australian magazine ''[[The Bulletin (Australian periodical)|The Bulletin]]'', it was suggested that the Prime Minister viewed Australia as a "deputy peacekeeping capacity to the global policing role of the US" in the Asia-Pacific region, and that he had embraced the term "Howard Doctrine". Both notions were criticised by foreign leaders, diplomats, and academics in Australia and the region. Howard rejected these notions later that week.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.abc.net.au/7.30/stories/s55116.htm |title=Australia as regional police doctrine puts Howard in damage control |access-date=31 July 2008 |publisher=[[ABC News (Australia)|ABC News]] }}; [https://www.theguardian.com/world/2004/sep/10/indonesia.australia The Guardian]</ref> In 2003, US President, George W Bush, described Howard as the US' "deputy sheriff" in the region, comments which Howard played down.<ref>[http://www.abc.net.au/pm/content/2003/s969604.htm PM program, ABC]</ref>
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/* 11 September 2001 ("9/11") attacks */ Replaced bare url with CS1 reference
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