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Almost all oil and gas is imported and is a big part of the current account deficit,<ref>{{Cite news |last=Reuters |date=2022-04-11 |title=Turkey's current account deficit reaches $5.15 billion in February |language=en |work=Reuters |url=https://www.reuters.com/world/middle-east/turkeys-current-account-deficit-reaches-515-bln-february-2022-04-11/ |access-date=2022-06-09}}</ref> but a large [[sweet gas]] field in the Black Sea is expected to start production in 2023.<ref>{{cite web |date=20 August 2020 |title=Turkey Makes Significant Black Sea Gas Find: Sources |url=https://www.nytimes.com/reuters/2020/08/20/world/europe/20reuters-turkey-energy.html |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200822012730/https://www.nytimes.com/reuters/2020/08/20/world/europe/20reuters-turkey-energy.html |archive-date=22 August 2020 |access-date=28 August 2020 |work=The New York Times}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |date=27 August 2020 |title=Black Sea gas strengthens Turkey's hand in geopolitics |url=https://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/black-sea-gas-strengthens-turkey-hand-geopolitics-200825180514270.html |publisher=Al Jazeera}}</ref><ref name=":6">{{Cite web |date=28 December 2021 |title=Turkey to produce ‘sweet’ natural gas, says minister |url=https://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turkey-to-produce-sweet-natural-gas-says-minister-170378 |access-date=2022-04-13 |website=[[Hürriyet Daily News]] |language=en}}</ref>
Almost all oil and gas is imported and is a big part of the current account deficit,<ref>{{Cite news |last=Reuters |date=2022-04-11 |title=Turkey's current account deficit reaches $5.15 billion in February |language=en |work=Reuters |url=https://www.reuters.com/world/middle-east/turkeys-current-account-deficit-reaches-515-bln-february-2022-04-11/ |access-date=2022-06-09}}</ref> but a large [[sweet gas]] field in the Black Sea is expected to start production in 2023.<ref>{{cite web |date=20 August 2020 |title=Turkey Makes Significant Black Sea Gas Find: Sources |url=https://www.nytimes.com/reuters/2020/08/20/world/europe/20reuters-turkey-energy.html |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200822012730/https://www.nytimes.com/reuters/2020/08/20/world/europe/20reuters-turkey-energy.html |archive-date=22 August 2020 |access-date=28 August 2020 |work=The New York Times}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |date=27 August 2020 |title=Black Sea gas strengthens Turkey's hand in geopolitics |url=https://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/black-sea-gas-strengthens-turkey-hand-geopolitics-200825180514270.html |publisher=Al Jazeera}}</ref><ref name=":6">{{Cite web |date=28 December 2021 |title=Turkey to produce ‘sweet’ natural gas, says minister |url=https://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turkey-to-produce-sweet-natural-gas-says-minister-170378 |access-date=2022-04-13 |website=[[Hürriyet Daily News]] |language=en}}</ref>
[[File:TANAP_OPEN_2018-06-12(4).jpg|thumb|Trans-Anatolian gas pipeline inauguration at the Turkish city of [[Eskişehir]], 12 June 2018]]
[[File:TANAP_OPEN_2018-06-12(4).jpg|thumb|Trans-Anatolian gas pipeline inauguration at the Turkish city of [[Eskişehir]], 12 June 2018]]
Annual gas demand is about 50 billion cubic metres (bcm),<ref name="TurkPotential">{{cite web |title=From A Pipeline Nation To An Energy Trading Hub |url=http://www.turkeydiscoverthepotential.com/en/news/get/news-03-from-a-pipeline-nation-to-an-energy-trading-hub |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181026182720/http://www.turkeydiscoverthepotential.com/en/news/get/news-03-from-a-pipeline-nation-to-an-energy-trading-hub |archive-date=26 October 2018 |access-date=26 October 2018}}</ref> over 30% of Turkey's total energy demand. Russia supplied a third of this amount in 2020.<ref name=":10" />{{Update inline|date=June 2022}} {{As of|2019|}}, storage capacity was 3.44 bcm and daily transmission capacity 318 million cubic metres.<ref>{{Cite web |date=5 January 2020 |title=Total inflow to Turkish gas system down 6.33% in 2019 |url=https://www.dailysabah.com/energy/2020/01/05/total-inflow-to-turkish-gas-system-down-633-in-2019 |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200327121918/https://www.dailysabah.com/energy/2020/01/05/total-inflow-to-turkish-gas-system-down-633-in-2019 |archive-date=27 March 2020 |access-date=27 March 2020 |newspaper=[[Daily Sabah]]}}</ref>{{Better source needed|reason=The current source is insufficiently reliable ([[WP:NOTRS]]).|date=June 2022}} Over 80% of the population, and all provinces in Turkey, are served with natural gas,<ref>{{Cite web |last= |first= |date=2021-04-02 |title=Konya's new facility mixes hydrogen, natural gas for clean energy |url=https://www.dailysabah.com/business/energy/konyas-new-facility-mixes-hydrogen-natural-gas-for-clean-energy |url-status=live |access-date=2021-05-22 |website=Daily Sabah |language=en-US}}</ref>{{Better source needed|reason=The current source is insufficiently reliable ([[WP:NOTRS]]).|date=June 2022}} which supplies most of the country's heating requirements.<ref name="IEA 2018">{{cite web |title=Turkey: Electricity and heat for 2016 |url=https://www.iea.org/statistics/?country=TURKEY&year=2016&category=Key%20indicators&indicator=CO2EnergyMix&mode=chart&categoryBrowse=false&dataTable=ELECTRICITYANDHEAT&showDataTable=true |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20191230104903/https://www.iea.org/data-and-statistics |archive-date=30 December 2019 |access-date=24 November 2018 |publisher=[[International Energy Agency|IEA]]}}</ref> In 2019, households bought the most gas, followed by industry then power stations.<ref name=":6" />{{Update inline|date=June 2022}} All industrial and commercial consumers, and households buying over 75 thousand cubic-meters a year can switch suppliers.<ref name=":2" />{{Better source needed|reason=The current source is insufficiently reliable ([[WP:NOTRS]]).|date=June 2022}}
Annual gas demand is about 50 billion cubic metres (bcm),<ref name="TurkPotential">{{cite web |title=From A Pipeline Nation To An Energy Trading Hub |url=http://www.turkeydiscoverthepotential.com/en/news/get/news-03-from-a-pipeline-nation-to-an-energy-trading-hub |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181026182720/http://www.turkeydiscoverthepotential.com/en/news/get/news-03-from-a-pipeline-nation-to-an-energy-trading-hub |archive-date=26 October 2018 |access-date=26 October 2018}}</ref> over 30% of Turkey's total energy demand. Russia supplied a third of this amount in 2020.<ref name=":10" />{{Update inline|date=June 2022}} {{As of|2019|}}, storage capacity was 3.44 bcm and daily transmission capacity 318 million cubic metres.<ref>{{Cite web |date=5 January 2020 |title=Total inflow to Turkish gas system down 6.33% in 2019 |url=https://www.dailysabah.com/energy/2020/01/05/total-inflow-to-turkish-gas-system-down-633-in-2019 |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200327121918/https://www.dailysabah.com/energy/2020/01/05/total-inflow-to-turkish-gas-system-down-633-in-2019 |archive-date=27 March 2020 |access-date=27 March 2020 |newspaper=[[Daily Sabah]]}}</ref>{{Better source needed|reason=The current source is insufficiently reliable ([[WP:NOTRS]]).|date=June 2022}} Over 80% of the population, and all provinces in Turkey, are served with natural gas,<ref>{{Cite web |last= |first= |date=2021-04-02 |title=Konya's new facility mixes hydrogen, natural gas for clean energy |url=https://www.dailysabah.com/business/energy/konyas-new-facility-mixes-hydrogen-natural-gas-for-clean-energy |url-status=live |access-date=2021-05-22 |website=Daily Sabah |language=en-US}}</ref>{{Better source needed|reason=The current source is insufficiently reliable ([[WP:NOTRS]]).|date=June 2022}} which supplies most of the country's heating requirements.<ref name="IEA 2018">{{cite web |title=Turkey: Electricity and heat for 2016 |url=https://www.iea.org/statistics/?country=TURKEY&year=2016&category=Key%20indicators&indicator=CO2EnergyMix&mode=chart&categoryBrowse=false&dataTable=ELECTRICITYANDHEAT&showDataTable=true |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20191230104903/https://www.iea.org/data-and-statistics |archive-date=30 December 2019 |access-date=24 November 2018 |publisher=[[International Energy Agency|IEA]]}}</ref> In 2019, households bought the most gas, followed by industry then power stations.<ref name=":6" />{{Update inline|date=June 2022}} All industrial and commercial consumers, and households buying over 75 thousand cubic-meters a year can switch suppliers.<ref name=":0" />{{Better source needed|reason=The current source is insufficiently reliable ([[WP:NOTRS]]).|date=June 2022}}


Gas from Russia comes via the [[Blue Stream]] and [[TurkStream]] pipelines; and from Iran via the [[Tabriz–Ankara pipeline]].<ref>{{Cite web |last=Agency |first=Tasnim News |date=31 March 2020 |title=Blast Halts Iran's Gas Exports To Turkey |url=https://www.eurasiareview.com/01042020-blast-halts-irans-gas-exports-to-turkey/ |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200809210100/https://www.eurasiareview.com/01042020-blast-halts-irans-gas-exports-to-turkey/ |archive-date=9 August 2020 |access-date=2020-04-02 |website=Eurasia Review |language=en-US}}</ref> Azerbaijan normally supplies Turkey through the [[South Caucasus Pipeline]].<ref>{{cite news |date=30 May 2018 |title=TANAP gas to provide cheapest among Turkey's imports |newspaper=[[Daily Sabah]] |url=https://www.dailysabah.com/energy/2018/05/31/tanap-gas-to-provide-cheapest-among-turkeys-imports |url-status=live |access-date=26 October 2018 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190419205418/https://www.dailysabah.com/energy/2018/05/31/tanap-gas-to-provide-cheapest-among-turkeys-imports |archive-date=19 April 2019}}</ref>{{Better source needed|reason=The current source is insufficiently reliable ([[WP:NOTRS]]).|date=June 2022}} Its gas flows onward through the [[Trans-Anatolian gas pipeline]] supplying Turkey and some continues across the Greek border into the [[Trans Adriatic Pipeline]].<ref>{{Cite web |title=Russia Is Making A Comeback In This Growing Gas Market |url=https://oilprice.com/Energy/Natural-Gas/Russia-Is-Making-A-Comeback-In-This-Growing-Gas-Market.html |access-date=2021-05-22 |website=OilPrice.com |language=en}}</ref>
Gas from Russia comes via the [[Blue Stream]] and [[TurkStream]] pipelines; and from Iran via the [[Tabriz–Ankara pipeline]].<ref>{{Cite web |last=Agency |first=Tasnim News |date=31 March 2020 |title=Blast Halts Iran's Gas Exports To Turkey |url=https://www.eurasiareview.com/01042020-blast-halts-irans-gas-exports-to-turkey/ |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200809210100/https://www.eurasiareview.com/01042020-blast-halts-irans-gas-exports-to-turkey/ |archive-date=9 August 2020 |access-date=2020-04-02 |website=Eurasia Review |language=en-US}}</ref> Azerbaijan normally supplies Turkey through the [[South Caucasus Pipeline]].<ref>{{cite news |date=30 May 2018 |title=TANAP gas to provide cheapest among Turkey's imports |newspaper=[[Daily Sabah]] |url=https://www.dailysabah.com/energy/2018/05/31/tanap-gas-to-provide-cheapest-among-turkeys-imports |url-status=live |access-date=26 October 2018 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190419205418/https://www.dailysabah.com/energy/2018/05/31/tanap-gas-to-provide-cheapest-among-turkeys-imports |archive-date=19 April 2019}}</ref>{{Better source needed|reason=The current source is insufficiently reliable ([[WP:NOTRS]]).|date=June 2022}} Its gas flows onward through the [[Trans-Anatolian gas pipeline]] supplying Turkey and some continues across the Greek border into the [[Trans Adriatic Pipeline]].<ref>{{Cite web |title=Russia Is Making A Comeback In This Growing Gas Market |url=https://oilprice.com/Energy/Natural-Gas/Russia-Is-Making-A-Comeback-In-This-Growing-Gas-Market.html |access-date=2021-05-22 |website=OilPrice.com |language=en}}</ref>


About a quarter of the country's gas is imported as [[liquefied natural gas]] (LNG).<ref>{{Cite web |title=Energy watchdog foresees 52.02 bcm gas consumption in 2020 |url=https://www.dailysabah.com/energy/2020/01/29/energy-watchdog-foresees-5202-bcm-gas-consumption-in-2020 |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200205172335/https://www.dailysabah.com/energy/2020/01/29/energy-watchdog-foresees-5202-bcm-gas-consumption-in-2020 |archive-date=5 February 2020 |access-date=5 February 2020 |newspaper=[[Daily Sabah]]}}</ref>{{Better source needed|reason=The current source is insufficiently reliable ([[WP:NOTRS]]).|date=June 2022}} Because it can be stored, it is important for meeting the peak winter demand.<ref name="TurkStream">{{cite web|title=Turkstream Impact on Turkey's Economy and Energy Security|url=http://edam.org.tr/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/turkstream_report_eng.pdf|url-status=live|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181015192849/http://edam.org.tr/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/turkstream_report_eng.pdf|archive-date=15 October 2018|access-date=26 October 2018|publisher="Istanbul Economics" & "The Center for Economics and Foreign Policy" – EDAM}}</ref> Stored LNG met 7.5% of annual demand in 2018 but is increasing. A spot exchange was started in 2018,<ref name=":02" />{{Better source needed|reason=The current source is insufficiently reliable ([[WP:NOTRS]]).|date=June 2022}} and futures trading is planned for October 2021.<ref>{{Cite web |date=9 June 2021 |title=Turkey to open 'Black Sea Gas Contract' for future trade by Oct 1 |url=https://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turkey-to-open-black-sea-gas-contract-for-future-trade-by-oct-1-165401 |access-date=2021-07-03 |website=Hürriyet Daily News |language=en}}</ref>
About a quarter of the country's gas is imported as [[liquefied natural gas]] (LNG).<ref>{{Cite web |title=Energy watchdog foresees 52.02 bcm gas consumption in 2020 |url=https://www.dailysabah.com/energy/2020/01/29/energy-watchdog-foresees-5202-bcm-gas-consumption-in-2020 |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200205172335/https://www.dailysabah.com/energy/2020/01/29/energy-watchdog-foresees-5202-bcm-gas-consumption-in-2020 |archive-date=5 February 2020 |access-date=5 February 2020 |newspaper=[[Daily Sabah]]}}</ref>{{Better source needed|reason=The current source is insufficiently reliable ([[WP:NOTRS]]).|date=June 2022}} Because it can be stored, it is important for meeting the peak winter demand.<ref name="TurkStream">{{cite web|title=Turkstream Impact on Turkey's Economy and Energy Security|url=http://edam.org.tr/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/turkstream_report_eng.pdf|url-status=live|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181015192849/http://edam.org.tr/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/turkstream_report_eng.pdf|archive-date=15 October 2018|access-date=26 October 2018|publisher="Istanbul Economics" & "The Center for Economics and Foreign Policy" – EDAM}}</ref> Stored LNG met 7.5% of annual demand in 2018 but is increasing. A spot exchange was started in 2018,<ref name=":0" />{{Better source needed|reason=The current source is insufficiently reliable ([[WP:NOTRS]]).|date=June 2022}} and futures trading is planned for October 2021.<ref>{{Cite web |date=9 June 2021 |title=Turkey to open 'Black Sea Gas Contract' for future trade by Oct 1 |url=https://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turkey-to-open-black-sea-gas-contract-for-future-trade-by-oct-1-165401 |access-date=2021-07-03 |website=Hürriyet Daily News |language=en}}</ref>


{{As of|2019}}, only a small proportion of gas imports are re-exported to the EU. However Turkey aims to become a gas trading hub<ref>{{cite news |title=EXIST To Open Spot Natural Gas Market At End Of Year |url=https://www.epias.com.tr/en/announcements/exist-to-open-spot-natural-gas-market-at-end-of-year |url-status=live |access-date=26 October 2018 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190422112420/https://www.epias.com.tr/en/announcements/exist-to-open-spot-natural-gas-market-at-end-of-year/ |archive-date=22 April 2019}}</ref> and re-export more.<ref name="TurkPotential" />
{{As of|2019}}, only a small proportion of gas imports are re-exported to the EU. However Turkey aims to become a gas trading hub<ref>{{cite news |title=EXIST To Open Spot Natural Gas Market At End Of Year |url=https://www.epias.com.tr/en/announcements/exist-to-open-spot-natural-gas-market-at-end-of-year |url-status=live |access-date=26 October 2018 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190422112420/https://www.epias.com.tr/en/announcements/exist-to-open-spot-natural-gas-market-at-end-of-year/ |archive-date=22 April 2019}}</ref> and re-export more.<ref name="TurkPotential" />


{{As of|2021}} the annual gas import bill is around USD44 billion.<ref>{{Cite web |title=Turkey Makes Moves To Become An Energy Hub |url=https://oilprice.com/Energy/Natural-Gas/Turkey-Makes-Moves-To-Become-An-Energy-Hub.html |access-date=2021-07-03 |website=OilPrice.com |language=en}}</ref> But long-term contracts with Russia and Iran will expire in the 2020s.<ref>{{Cite book |url=https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/Gas-Supply-Changes-in-Turkey-Insight-24.pdf?v=79cba1185463 |title=Gas Supply Changes in Turkey |publisher=[[Oxford Institute for Energy Studies]] |year=2018 |pages=8 |access-date=3 January 2020 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20210112164806/https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/Gas-Supply-Changes-in-Turkey-Insight-24.pdf?v=79cba1185463 |archive-date=12 January 2021 |url-status=live}}</ref> The contract to import from Iran expires in 2026.<ref>{{Cite web |date=28 September 2020 |title=Iran's share in Turkey's future gas market |url=https://www.tehrantimes.com/news/452972/Iran-s-share-in-Turkey-s-future-gas-market |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20201002221212/https://www.tehrantimes.com/news/452972/Iran-s-share-in-Turkey-s-future-gas-market |archive-date=2 October 2020 |access-date=2020-09-28 |website=[[Tehran Times]] |language=en}}</ref> Private companies are not allowed to enter into new pipeline gas contracts with countries that have contracts with the state owned oil and gas company, [[BOTAŞ]].<ref name=":02" />{{Better source needed|reason=The current source is insufficiently reliable ([[WP:NOTRS]]).|date=June 2022}} Although private companies can contract for LNG<ref name=":02" />{{Better source needed|reason=The current source is insufficiently reliable ([[WP:NOTRS]]).|date=June 2022}} they cannot buy at the same price as BOTAŞ.<ref name=":42">{{Cite web |date=2020-05-18 |title=Coronavirus emergency measures should persuade Ukraine, Romania, and Turkey to legitimize energy reform, not reverse it |url=https://www.atlanticcouncil.org/blogs/energysource/coronavirus-emergency-measures-should-persuade-ukraine-romania-and-turkey-to-legitimize-energy-reform-not-reverse-it/ |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200702102924/https://www.atlanticcouncil.org/blogs/energysource/coronavirus-emergency-measures-should-persuade-ukraine-romania-and-turkey-to-legitimize-energy-reform-not-reverse-it/ |archive-date=2 July 2020 |access-date=2 July 2020 |website=[[Atlantic Council]] |language=en-US}}</ref> As it has 80% of the market,<ref>{{cite news |date=12 August 2018 |title=Turkish households consumed cheapest natural gas in Europe in 2017 |newspaper=[[Daily Sabah]] |url=https://www.dailysabah.com/energy/2018/08/13/turkish-households-consumed-cheapest-natural-gas-in-europe-in-2017 |url-status=live |access-date=26 October 2018 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181016165412/https://www.dailysabah.com/energy/2018/08/13/turkish-households-consumed-cheapest-natural-gas-in-europe-in-2017 |archive-date=16 October 2018}}</ref>{{Better source needed|reason=The current source is insufficiently reliable ([[WP:NOTRS]]).|date=June 2022}} BOTAŞ can and does subsidize residential and industrial customers.<ref name=":02" />{{Better source needed|reason=The current source is insufficiently reliable ([[WP:NOTRS]]).|date=June 2022}}
{{As of|2021}} the annual gas import bill is around USD44 billion.<ref>{{Cite web |title=Turkey Makes Moves To Become An Energy Hub |url=https://oilprice.com/Energy/Natural-Gas/Turkey-Makes-Moves-To-Become-An-Energy-Hub.html |access-date=2021-07-03 |website=OilPrice.com |language=en}}</ref> But long-term contracts with Russia and Iran will expire in the 2020s.<ref>{{Cite book |url=https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/Gas-Supply-Changes-in-Turkey-Insight-24.pdf?v=79cba1185463 |title=Gas Supply Changes in Turkey |publisher=[[Oxford Institute for Energy Studies]] |year=2018 |pages=8 |access-date=3 January 2020 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20210112164806/https://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/Gas-Supply-Changes-in-Turkey-Insight-24.pdf?v=79cba1185463 |archive-date=12 January 2021 |url-status=live}}</ref> The contract to import from Iran expires in 2026.<ref>{{Cite web |date=28 September 2020 |title=Iran's share in Turkey's future gas market |url=https://www.tehrantimes.com/news/452972/Iran-s-share-in-Turkey-s-future-gas-market |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20201002221212/https://www.tehrantimes.com/news/452972/Iran-s-share-in-Turkey-s-future-gas-market |archive-date=2 October 2020 |access-date=2020-09-28 |website=[[Tehran Times]] |language=en}}</ref> Private companies are not allowed to enter into new pipeline gas contracts with countries that have contracts with the state owned oil and gas company, [[BOTAŞ]].<ref name=":0" />{{Better source needed|reason=The current source is insufficiently reliable ([[WP:NOTRS]]).|date=June 2022}} Although private companies can contract for LNG<ref name=":0" />{{Better source needed|reason=The current source is insufficiently reliable ([[WP:NOTRS]]).|date=June 2022}} they cannot buy at the same price as BOTAŞ.<ref name=":42">{{Cite web |date=2020-05-18 |title=Coronavirus emergency measures should persuade Ukraine, Romania, and Turkey to legitimize energy reform, not reverse it |url=https://www.atlanticcouncil.org/blogs/energysource/coronavirus-emergency-measures-should-persuade-ukraine-romania-and-turkey-to-legitimize-energy-reform-not-reverse-it/ |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200702102924/https://www.atlanticcouncil.org/blogs/energysource/coronavirus-emergency-measures-should-persuade-ukraine-romania-and-turkey-to-legitimize-energy-reform-not-reverse-it/ |archive-date=2 July 2020 |access-date=2 July 2020 |website=[[Atlantic Council]] |language=en-US}}</ref> As it has 80% of the market,<ref>{{cite news |date=12 August 2018 |title=Turkish households consumed cheapest natural gas in Europe in 2017 |newspaper=[[Daily Sabah]] |url=https://www.dailysabah.com/energy/2018/08/13/turkish-households-consumed-cheapest-natural-gas-in-europe-in-2017 |url-status=live |access-date=26 October 2018 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181016165412/https://www.dailysabah.com/energy/2018/08/13/turkish-households-consumed-cheapest-natural-gas-in-europe-in-2017 |archive-date=16 October 2018}}</ref>{{Better source needed|reason=The current source is insufficiently reliable ([[WP:NOTRS]]).|date=June 2022}} BOTAŞ can and does subsidize residential and industrial customers.<ref name=":0" />{{Better source needed|reason=The current source is insufficiently reliable ([[WP:NOTRS]]).|date=June 2022}}


Some distribution companies are testing mixing up to 20% [[hydrogen]] with natural gas: their aim is that eventually some of the gas distributed will be [[green hydrogen]].<ref>{{Cite web |date=2020-07-27 |title=Turkey to blend green hydrogen into natural gas supply network for heating |url=https://balkangreenenergynews.com/turkey-to-blend-green-hydrogen-into-natural-gas-supply-network-for-heating/ |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200728133944/https://balkangreenenergynews.com/turkey-to-blend-green-hydrogen-into-natural-gas-supply-network-for-heating/ |archive-date=28 July 2020 |access-date=28 July 2020 |website=Balkan Green Energy News |language=en-US}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web |last=Sabadus |first=Aura |title=Turkey moves closer to hydrogen grid injections, outlines long-term roadmap |url=https://www.icis.com/explore/resources/news/2021/04/12/10627403/turkey-moves-closer-to-hydrogen-grid-injections-outlines-long-term-roadmap |access-date=2021-05-22 |website=ICIS Explore |language=en-US}}</ref>
Some distribution companies are testing mixing up to 20% [[hydrogen]] with natural gas: their aim is that eventually some of the gas distributed will be [[green hydrogen]].<ref>{{Cite web |date=2020-07-27 |title=Turkey to blend green hydrogen into natural gas supply network for heating |url=https://balkangreenenergynews.com/turkey-to-blend-green-hydrogen-into-natural-gas-supply-network-for-heating/ |url-status=live |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200728133944/https://balkangreenenergynews.com/turkey-to-blend-green-hydrogen-into-natural-gas-supply-network-for-heating/ |archive-date=28 July 2020 |access-date=28 July 2020 |website=Balkan Green Energy News |language=en-US}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web |last=Sabadus |first=Aura |title=Turkey moves closer to hydrogen grid injections, outlines long-term roadmap |url=https://www.icis.com/explore/resources/news/2021/04/12/10627403/turkey-moves-closer-to-hydrogen-grid-injections-outlines-long-term-roadmap |access-date=2021-05-22 |website=ICIS Explore |language=en-US}}</ref>
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{{See also|Category:Oil fields in Turkey|Category:Oil pipelines in Turkey}}
{{See also|Category:Oil fields in Turkey|Category:Oil pipelines in Turkey}}
[[File:SOCAR_Turkey_Aegean_Refinery_(STAR).jpg|thumb|[[SOCAR]] Star Aegean oil refinery, [[İzmir]]]]
[[File:SOCAR_Turkey_Aegean_Refinery_(STAR).jpg|thumb|[[SOCAR]] Star Aegean oil refinery, [[İzmir]]]]
During the 2010s oil demand grew from 700 thousand to one million barrels per day, mainly due to increased demand for diesel.{{sfnp|DifiglioGürayMerdan|2020|p=205}} Demand is forecast to increase slowly to 2040.{{sfnp|DifiglioGürayMerdan|2020|p=212}} Almost all oil is imported: mostly from Iraq, Russia and Kazakhstan.<ref>{{cite news |date=19 August 2018 |title=Turkey's crude oil imports from Iran down by more than 70 pct in June |url=https://www.dailysabah.com/energy/2018/08/20/turkeys-crude-oil-imports-from-iran-down-by-more-than-70-pct-in-june |url-status=live |access-date=26 October 2018 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190616185435/https://www.dailysabah.com/energy/2018/08/20/turkeys-crude-oil-imports-from-iran-down-by-more-than-70-pct-in-june |archive-date=16 June 2019}}</ref>{{Better source needed|reason=The current source is insufficiently reliable ([[WP:NOTRS]]).|date=June 2022}}<ref>{{Cite news |date=21 May 2019 |title=Despite rhetoric, Turkey complies with U.S. oil sanctions on Iran |language=en |work=Reuters |url=https://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-iran-oil-turkey-idUKKCN1SR16S |url-status=live |access-date=31 May 2019 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20191217205358/https://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-iran-oil-turkey-idUKKCN1SR16S |archive-date=17 December 2019}}</ref> As over half of the imported oil and oil products are used for road transport,{{sfnp|DifiglioGürayMerdan|2020|pp=203}} it is hoped that electrifying land transport will reduce the import bill. Electric buses<ref name=":02" />{{Better source needed|reason=The current source is insufficiently reliable ([[WP:NOTRS]]).|date=June 2022}} and hybrid cars are manufactured locally,<ref>{{cite news |date=29 January 2019 |title=Turkey determined to boost hybrid, electric car sales |work=Yeni Şafak |url=https://www.yenisafak.com/en/world/turkey-determined-to-boost-hybrid-electric-car-sales-3473176 |url-status=live |access-date=19 February 2019 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190129114408/https://www.yenisafak.com/en/world/turkey-determined-to-boost-hybrid-electric-car-sales-3473176 |archive-date=29 January 2019}}</ref> and [[Automotive industry in Turkey|Turkey's automotive industry]] plans to produce a [[TOGG Turkish national car|homegrown electric car]] beginning in 2022.<ref>{{cite news |date=23 March 2019 |title=Turkey plans to create domestic car with electric engine |work=Azernews |url=https://www.azernews.az/region/147695.html |url-status=live |access-date=27 March 2019 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190327174036/https://www.azernews.az/region/147695.html |archive-date=27 March 2019}}</ref> Most exports from the [[petroleum industry in Azerbaijan]] transit Turkey,<ref>{{cite news |date=7 August 2018 |title=Turkish energy sector hit by lira depreciation: MUFG research |publisher=S & P Global |url=https://www.spglobal.com/platts/en/market-insights/latest-news/electric-power/081718-turkish-energy-sector-hit-by-lira-depreciation-mufg-research |url-status=live |access-date=26 October 2018 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20191230104739/https://www.spglobal.com/platts/en/market-insights/latest-news/electric-power/081718-turkish-energy-sector-hit-by-lira-depreciation-mufg-research |archive-date=30 December 2019}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web |date=2021-04-22 |title=AP Explains: What lies behind Turkish support for Azerbaijan |url=https://apnews.com/article/turkey-territorial-disputes-azerbaijan-ankara-armenia-9a95d9690569623adedffe8c16f3588d |access-date=2021-05-22 |website=AP NEWS}}</ref> as their light oil fetches a premium price on the world market.<ref>{{Cite web |title=Turkey and Azerbaijan cement relations with new oil refinery {{!}} Eurasianet |url=https://eurasianet.org/turkey-and-azerbaijan-cement-relations-with-new-oil-refinery |access-date=2021-05-22 |website=eurasianet.org |language=en}}</ref>
During the 2010s oil demand grew from 700 thousand to one million barrels per day, mainly due to increased demand for diesel.{{sfnp|DifiglioGürayMerdan|2020|p=205}} Demand is forecast to increase slowly to 2040.{{sfnp|DifiglioGürayMerdan|2020|p=212}} Almost all oil is imported: mostly from Iraq, Russia and Kazakhstan.<ref>{{cite news |date=19 August 2018 |title=Turkey's crude oil imports from Iran down by more than 70 pct in June |url=https://www.dailysabah.com/energy/2018/08/20/turkeys-crude-oil-imports-from-iran-down-by-more-than-70-pct-in-june |url-status=live |access-date=26 October 2018 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190616185435/https://www.dailysabah.com/energy/2018/08/20/turkeys-crude-oil-imports-from-iran-down-by-more-than-70-pct-in-june |archive-date=16 June 2019}}</ref>{{Better source needed|reason=The current source is insufficiently reliable ([[WP:NOTRS]]).|date=June 2022}}<ref>{{Cite news |date=21 May 2019 |title=Despite rhetoric, Turkey complies with U.S. oil sanctions on Iran |language=en |work=Reuters |url=https://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-iran-oil-turkey-idUKKCN1SR16S |url-status=live |access-date=31 May 2019 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20191217205358/https://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-iran-oil-turkey-idUKKCN1SR16S |archive-date=17 December 2019}}</ref> As over half of the imported oil and oil products are used for road transport,{{sfnp|DifiglioGürayMerdan|2020|pp=203}} it is hoped that electrifying land transport will reduce the import bill. Electric buses<ref name=":0" />{{Better source needed|reason=The current source is insufficiently reliable ([[WP:NOTRS]]).|date=June 2022}} and hybrid cars are manufactured locally,<ref>{{cite news |date=29 January 2019 |title=Turkey determined to boost hybrid, electric car sales |work=Yeni Şafak |url=https://www.yenisafak.com/en/world/turkey-determined-to-boost-hybrid-electric-car-sales-3473176 |url-status=live |access-date=19 February 2019 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190129114408/https://www.yenisafak.com/en/world/turkey-determined-to-boost-hybrid-electric-car-sales-3473176 |archive-date=29 January 2019}}</ref> and [[Automotive industry in Turkey|Turkey's automotive industry]] plans to produce a [[TOGG Turkish national car|homegrown electric car]] beginning in 2022.<ref>{{cite news |date=23 March 2019 |title=Turkey plans to create domestic car with electric engine |work=Azernews |url=https://www.azernews.az/region/147695.html |url-status=live |access-date=27 March 2019 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190327174036/https://www.azernews.az/region/147695.html |archive-date=27 March 2019}}</ref> Most exports from the [[petroleum industry in Azerbaijan]] transit Turkey,<ref>{{cite news |date=7 August 2018 |title=Turkish energy sector hit by lira depreciation: MUFG research |publisher=S & P Global |url=https://www.spglobal.com/platts/en/market-insights/latest-news/electric-power/081718-turkish-energy-sector-hit-by-lira-depreciation-mufg-research |url-status=live |access-date=26 October 2018 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20191230104739/https://www.spglobal.com/platts/en/market-insights/latest-news/electric-power/081718-turkish-energy-sector-hit-by-lira-depreciation-mufg-research |archive-date=30 December 2019}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web |date=2021-04-22 |title=AP Explains: What lies behind Turkish support for Azerbaijan |url=https://apnews.com/article/turkey-territorial-disputes-azerbaijan-ankara-armenia-9a95d9690569623adedffe8c16f3588d |access-date=2021-05-22 |website=AP NEWS}}</ref> as their light oil fetches a premium price on the world market.<ref>{{Cite web |title=Turkey and Azerbaijan cement relations with new oil refinery {{!}} Eurasianet |url=https://eurasianet.org/turkey-and-azerbaijan-cement-relations-with-new-oil-refinery |access-date=2021-05-22 |website=eurasianet.org |language=en}}</ref>


The Petroleum Market Law provides incentives for investors to explore and produce.{{sfnp|DifiglioGürayMerdan|2020|pp=198}} There is some [[enhanced oil recovery]].{{sfnp|DifiglioGürayMerdan|2020|p=227}} As well as crude oil, the country imports oil products, diesel, LPG and [[petcoke]] (to make cement), and {{as of|2020|lc=y}}, the energy import bill closely tracks the price of crude oil.{{sfnp|DifiglioGürayMerdan|2020|pp=199–200}} It has been suggested that taxes on diesel and petrol should be brought closer in line with each other to minimise imports. {{sfnp|DifiglioGürayMerdan|2020|p=202}} [[TPAO]], the state owned exploration and production company, increased offshore exploration in 2020.{{sfnp|DifiglioGürayMerdan|2020|pp=201}} Turkey is the world's largest user of [[liquefied petroleum gas]] (LPG) for road transport. {{sfnp|DifiglioGürayMerdan|2020|pp=206}} [[Shale oil]] may be extractable from [[Dadaş, Hazro|Dadaş]], but [[Environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing#Flowback|well waste fluids would need to be properly handled to minimize environmental problems]].{{sfnp|DifiglioGürayMerdan|2020|pp=226}} Although the largest field, [[Batı Raman oil field|Batı Raman]], produces extra heavy crude oil, other fields produce much lighter oil: domestic crude [[API gravity]] averages 28, and this medium weight is suitable for the Turkish market.{{sfnp|DifiglioGürayMerdan|2020|p=223}} [[Sulfur]] content is generally high, so refineries may need to be upgraded to meet 2020 [[Emission Control Area#SOx emissions control|maritime sulfur limits]].{{sfnp|DifiglioGürayMerdan|2020|p=238}}
The Petroleum Market Law provides incentives for investors to explore and produce.{{sfnp|DifiglioGürayMerdan|2020|pp=198}} There is some [[enhanced oil recovery]].{{sfnp|DifiglioGürayMerdan|2020|p=227}} As well as crude oil, the country imports oil products, diesel, LPG and [[petcoke]] (to make cement), and {{as of|2020|lc=y}}, the energy import bill closely tracks the price of crude oil.{{sfnp|DifiglioGürayMerdan|2020|pp=199–200}} It has been suggested that taxes on diesel and petrol should be brought closer in line with each other to minimise imports. {{sfnp|DifiglioGürayMerdan|2020|p=202}} [[TPAO]], the state owned exploration and production company, increased offshore exploration in 2020.{{sfnp|DifiglioGürayMerdan|2020|pp=201}} Turkey is the world's largest user of [[liquefied petroleum gas]] (LPG) for road transport. {{sfnp|DifiglioGürayMerdan|2020|pp=206}} [[Shale oil]] may be extractable from [[Dadaş, Hazro|Dadaş]], but [[Environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing#Flowback|well waste fluids would need to be properly handled to minimize environmental problems]].{{sfnp|DifiglioGürayMerdan|2020|pp=226}} Although the largest field, [[Batı Raman oil field|Batı Raman]], produces extra heavy crude oil, other fields produce much lighter oil: domestic crude [[API gravity]] averages 28, and this medium weight is suitable for the Turkish market.{{sfnp|DifiglioGürayMerdan|2020|p=223}} [[Sulfur]] content is generally high, so refineries may need to be upgraded to meet 2020 [[Emission Control Area#SOx emissions control|maritime sulfur limits]].{{sfnp|DifiglioGürayMerdan|2020|p=238}}
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Ok just ":10" to fix now
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